Pelletier was born in Charlesbourg, a suburb of Quebec City. In 1983 Pelletier performed in the bands Amanite and Sneak Preview, which sang in English. He later started a group called Pëll, singing in French. At 23 years old, he moved to Montreal, where he sang in bars. In 1989, he participated in the rock competition Envol, where he was awarded a special mention. In 1991, he had a role in the musical Vu d'en haut, presented at the Festival of the Montgolfières in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. The following year, he joined the musical spectacle Les fous du rock'n'roll, at which he has performed forty times.
In 1992, he released his first self-titled album in October and played the role of James Dean in the rock opera La Légende de Jimmy, by Luc Plamondon and Michel Berger in November.
In the summer of 1994, Pelletier was invited to participate in the FrancoFolies de La Rochelle. In September, he returned to the Mogador Theater in Paris to perform in Starmania until the end of the year, which he performed 400 times. He also recorded his second album, Défaire l'Amour, released in 1995. In 1997, his third studio album, Miserere, surpassed 200,000 copies sold. He also won the Félix Award for male singer of the year. At the same time, he appeared on the Quebec TV series Omertà II.
Between January and August 1998, Pelletier performed more than 100 concerts in Quebec. After that, he went to Paris to play the role of Gringoire in the Luc Plamondon-Riccardo Cocciante musical Notre-Dame de Paris. In 1999, Pelletier released his fourth album, D'autres rives, simultaneously in Europe and Quebec. It was one of the best-selling Francophone albums in Canada in 2000. During this period, he also performed the role of Gringoire in the English-language production of Notre-Dame de Paris in London. In 2001 he released a live album, Sur Scène. In August 2002 he released his sixth album, Un monde à l'envers.
During this period, Pelletier worked with the prestigious Symphonic Orchestra of Montreal for the series Les Week-ends pop de l'OSM. He united with the orchestra a second time in December 2002 to present a Christmas series, recorded as the album Concert de Noël.
In 2006, Pelletier played the leading role in the musical Dracula – Entre l'amour et la mort, a modern retelling of the Dracula story. The cast album was released in 2005. Pelletier released a jazz album titled Bruno Pelletier et le GrosZorchestre on September 11, 2007. He released his album titled Microphonium on February 3, 2009.
In 2011, Pelletier played the role of Napoléon in Michel Rivard's musical, Les Filles de Caleb.
On September 25, 2012, Pelletier released his eleventh studio album, entitled Rendus Là.